jueves, 1 de julio de 2010

date rape:betahidroxibutirato

1.        Gamma-hydroxybutyrate. An endogenous short-chain fatty acid that occurs naturally in the body, this illegal substance is not detected by standard toxicology screens. It has emerged as an important intoxicant. It is often sold to participants at large dance parties ("raves") and has been responsible for mass intoxications (Prehosp Emerg Care 3:357, 1999 ). It has also been used as a "date rape" drug. Synonyms include "liquid Ecstasy," "liquid E," "grievous bodily harm," "Georgia home boy," "soap," "salty water," and "organic Quaaludes."

a.        Symptoms include ataxia, nystagmus, somnolence progressing to coma, vomiting, and random clonic movements of the face and extremities. EEG recording supports the belief that these represent myoclonus and not true seizures. Respiratory depression may progress to apnea.

b.        Treatment. Absorption is very rapid, and lavage and activated charcoal administration are of little use. Do not induce emesis. The drug is not antagonized by naloxone or flumazenil. Experimental but no clinical evidence has been found for the use of physostigmine, and its use is not recommended. Administer oxygen and protect the airway; monitor oxygenation. Obtain electrolytes and glucose and establish an IV line. Stimulation, including endotracheal intubation, may stimulate violently aggressive behavior. Give atropine for persistent symptomatic bradycardia. Treat hypotension with IV fluids; pressors are rarely necessary. Obtain an ECG and monitor the cardiac rhythm continuously. Intoxication is usually short lived; coma typically lasts for 1-2 hours, and full recovery often occurs within 8 hours. Stable asymptomatic patients can be discharged after 6 hours of observation. Admit any patient who is still clinically intoxicated after 6 hours (Ann Emerg Med 31:729, 1998 ).


Date rape

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"Date rape", often referred to as "acquaintance rape", is an assault or attempted assault usually commited by a new acquaintance involving sexual intercourse without mutual consent.[1][2]

  • The term "date rape" is widely used. But most experts prefer the term "drug-facilitated sexual assault." However, this term evidently has a more limited scope as it does not include non-drug-assisted rapes. These drugs also are used to help people commit other crimes, like robbery and physical assault. They are used on both men and women. The term "date rape" also can be misleading because the person who commits the crime might not be dating the victim. Rather, it could be an acquaintance or stranger.[3]

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[edit] Drug-facilitated date rape

Drug-facilitated date rape is the use of drugs to assist the attacker in a rape. The drug can be any substance that is physical or mind altering.

Drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), which is considered an umbrella term for crimes such as drug-facilitated date rape, differs from many rapes in that it is not typically a crime of physical violence but rather of sexual hedonism and entitlement.

Instances of drug facilitated sexual assault have been found in the Bible.[4]

While the phenomenon is not new DFSA emerged as public concern that mostly occurred in social settings. Alcohol was the original date rape agent.

Rohypnol[5] (trade name for Flunitrazepam), is commonly known as a "club drug" because it is usually used in dance clubs and raves. Street names include: Circles, Forget Pill, LA Rochas, Lunch Money, Mexican Valium, Mind Erasers, Roach, Roopies, Roofies, R-2, Roches Dos, Rope, Rophies, Stupifi, Shays, Groundies, etc.[1][3]

Ketamine[6] is commonly known as: Black Hole, Bump, Cat Valium, Green, Jet, K, Kit Kat, Psychedelic heroin, Purple, Special K, Super Acid, Keller, Super C, etc.[3][7]

In 2001, Dr. Michael Welner published pioneering research on the typology of drug-facilitated rapists. The typology has since been cited and used by law enforcement and mental health professionals for distinguishing different perpetrators, their personalities, and their psychological makeup.[8]

The Typology of Drug facilitated sexual assault Includes

•Setting: Typology is best distinguished by the setting in which the attack takes place (e.g. Workplace Setting, Healthcare Setting or Social Setting).

•Accomplices and Conspiracies: There may be multiple perpetrators who conspire to commit the crime. Particularly in social settings, confirmed cases have involved male and female couple collaborators, siblings and friends.

•Intrafamilial DFSA: Many intrafamilial DFSA's often go unreported. Typically there is a power differential that prevent victims from speaking out.

•Male-on-male Offenses: Such cases occur nearly exclusively in social or school settings. Often the crime reflects the perpetrators conflicted feelings about private same-sex thought and desires.

•Sexual Deviance or Sexual Hunters: This group often includes those who are incompetent at finding sexual partners and those who have sexual fantasies of dominance.

[edit] Laws

[edit] United States

In 1996, President Clinton signed the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act. This act punishes for the use of the drug called Rohypnol. Four years later, the president signed another legislation banning GHB.

People who use date rape drugs have a risk of up to an additional 20 years in prison. Any possession of Rohypnol, even if there is no intent of using it, has a sentence of up to three years in prison. Every state has laws pertaining to rape.[9][10][11]

Indiana has a statute which makes the offense a Class A felony if "the commission of the offense is facilitated by furnishing the victim, without the victim's knowledge, with a drug ... or a controlled substance ... or knowing that the victim was furnished with the drug or controlled substance without the victim's knowledge."[12] (see drink spiking)